Forging processes are of many different types. They depend upon the temperature, equipment used, arrangement of the dies, etc.
But before diving into all of that, let’s define forging.
What is Forging?
Forging is a manufacturing process used to shape metals using compression. It is one of the oldest methods to mould metal into the required shape and size.
Earlier, smiths employed a hammer and anvil. This included hitting the hot metal repeatedly to get it into the desired shape.
Today, the forging industry has changed completely. Forging is now done by machines with the engineered process and production tools.
Different types of Forging
Mainly, there are two types of forging:
- Cold forging
This refers to forging done on the metal at atmospheric or room temperature. It is suitable for soft metals like aluminium, gold, silver, etc. This type of forging provides a better surface finish to the final product.
- Hot forging
This is the most commonly used method of forging. It is done at a higher temperature than the recrystallisation temperature of the metal. This kind of extreme heat eases the flow of the metal. As a result, it requires less force to mould the metal.
Types of Forging Processes
We can broadly classify the forging processes into three categories:
Hand Forging Process
In this process, a smith forges the metal by hand. It requires the use of a hammer and anvil.
It involves striking a job repeatedly with a hammer until the needed shape is achieved.
Drop Forging Process
In the drop forging method, the two surfaces or dies exert pressure on the job. The upper die drops on the lower die in a repeating action to forge the metal.
There are two types of drop forging processes:
- Open die forging
In this process, the dies used are mainly flat surfaces with simple shapes. This allows the material to freely deform on the open lateral surface.
This is the closest technique to hand forging as it involves similar methods.
- Closed die forging
Closed die forging consists of dies with impressions resembling a mould. Hence, it doesn’t allow any free deformation of the metal.
Machine Forging Process
In this process, different types of machines are used for forging. Some types of machine forging are:
- Press Forging
Unlike drop forging, press forging applies continuous pressure to the job in a squeezing manner. It involves a forging press that applies mechanical or hydraulic pressure to mould the metal.
- Roll Forging
This process comprises cylindrical or semi-cylindrical rollers with grooves. The metal rolls between the rollers and the grooves provide the required shape.
It is used to reduce the thickness and/or increase the length of the job.
- Upset Forging
Upset forging is used for products where some parts require deformation. Like forging the head of a bolt. It allows deforming the end of a job along its axis to gain the desired shape.
Metal forging can be done using many different methods and techniques. Different processes are used to get final products of different shapes and sizes.
The forging process also has a huge impact on the quality of the end product.
Murari Engineering offers a whole range of forged metal products. We believe in high-quality products to maintain the durability of products and structures.